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Notes to Accompany One Plan and Three Verti- 
cal Sections of the Athabasca nine, on Toad 
Mountain, near Nelson, British Columbia. 

By U. Nklson- Fi',r.i„ A.R.S..M., Nelson, 1!.C. 

Tlie vein cuts across a wfll defined conta n hetweet) a schistose 
eruptive rock and a more recent granite. This rrea of schistose ro( ks 
ard its no them contact with tiie granitoid area is shown in the recon- 
naissance map, published in Part li, Annual Report, \"ol. I\' , of the 
Geological Survey of Canada (Dr. I)av\-son"s Rejiort, iSSq). 

It is a narrow vein about one foot in width ; the gangue is (|uarl/, 
heavily charged with sul()hides of iron, zinc and lead, containing high 
values m gold and about the same number of ounces of silver as ounces 
of gold. 

'The chief characteristics of :he vein arc : that it is remarkably well 
defined; that it is very continuous ; tliat it is broken by inn-jmerable 
faults, some of which have occasioned considerable dis[)lacement of the 
vein ; that it passes from the schist in»o the granite without any inter- 
ruption or disturhance : that the values encotuitetcd in the granite are 
good, but not so good as those in tiie schist, with a tendency, perhaps, 
to be a little pockety. 

In the maps herewith, the granite is indicated by crosses, the schist 
is in blank. 

The discovery of the vein was made and work was commenced on 
a prominent ex[)osure in the granite. A tunnel was run in at the point 
marked on the plan " Main tunnel entrance," and a shaft was sunk on 
the vein near the i)ortal and the vein stoped out down to ? fault; to 
recover the vein on the other side of this fault, crosscuts were put in, 
both on the hanging and the foot-wall side, but without result 

The " Main tunnel " was then carried on into the schist, and, 
shortly afterwards, encountered what was then supposed to be a second 
vein. This vein was very flat, and disturbed by a most remarkable 
series of faults, running in every possible direction. The faults were, 



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7hf Ciinadiaii Mining Institute. 



prartiVally always, normal: atul. iti foliowitiR the vein ii|) |„ tlie surface, 
there was a general ten<len(y lo a downward throw at ea( h fault running 
ea^t and west (section through C.I) ) and an upward throw at each fault 
ruruiing north and south (.'•ection througl V. I'.). 

Associated with the vein (in the s. hist especially) are numerous 
aplite (acidic; dykes of earlier origin than the veui, and minctte (basic) 
dykes ol later origin than the vein One of the latter follows a prominent 
fault plane thoughout the mine and is shown in section thiough C.I). 
Not only is the vein faulted, hut it is suhje< t to remarkable roll., in the 
course of which it sometimes assumes a horizontal position and some- 
times a sharp " dip upwards," if I nr.iy use the cvpression. This is 
especially noticeahle along the contact o.' the granite and the schist. As 
a result of these displacements, drifts are fre.|uently seen at the same 
hoi/on, although 150 feet apart on the dip of the vein. 

It is hardly necessary to say that to meet these extraordinary con- 
ditions, an extraordinary system of mining was necessary, which was 
inc -nvenient and expensive and could not have been carried out at all, 
unless the gold contents had remained persistently high. 

At the twis of the main tunnel, the ground became unusually dis- 
turbed ; sloping had to be abandoned here and a small shaft was i)ut 
down from the point marked " Hoist Station." which ultimately passed 
into the granite. Along the contact, both in the schist and to a lesser 
extent in the granite, a remarkable concentration of values occurred 
which yielded very fine results in the mill : but below the contact in the 
shaft, and in the drifts to the west of the shaft, the vein was found in 
patches only, cut off by faults every few feet and thrown by each fault 
from 50 to 100 feet. 

P:astward from th<; shaft, No. 2 East was carried about 500 feet, 
meeting the vein in fine condition about 200 feet east of the shaft, and 
carrying it to the present face, without faults, well defined, with a regular 
dip of about 45°. 

As this work proceeded, it became more and more evident, until 
there was finally no room for doubt, that this vein was the same as that 
on which Shaft No. i had been sunk, and that we had now come round, 
on the other side of the fault, to a p lint on the vein which lay about 



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NATIONAL UBHARY 1 
CANADA I 

I I H — I ■ IT* 



Nrtes on the AfhalHtsca Mine, Toad Mouii. li. 



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The Canadian Afinihg /mti 



220 feet from tlvj point wlirrc it faiiliitl. 'Hh thro, tlu- vein along 
the ili|) of tlic faiih was .-ilioiit 175 fi-ct. 'Ihf outcrop on th. sutfa< c 
was then sou^^ht for and ini ov, r,<l iiiuJir thi: wasli. This is ilhi^tratcd 
ill the stiction through \ H. It is an interesting matter lo' s.,eculatiot> 
as to vvhat the results might iiave l)een, had the work originally hcen 
done at this outcrop, in ,te;>d of at the holder and richer ouk rop l.clow. 
It is n • impossible that the history ol the mine would ha\e heen 
materially changed. 

A few f,eneral points may I'C sunuiied up as noteworthy. 

Firstly : tiiat the vein occurs cutting hotii granite and S( hi.st. 

Secondly: that there is a remarkable concentration of values along 
the contact, pspeciaily on the s. hist side. 

Thirdly: that the values in the granite do not avera-e as well as 
in the schi.t ; the vein being inclined to be m..,e iiiumh, both in si/e 
and coniepts. 

Foiitthly: that the vein in the granite is louiid in a more normal 
condition and is better adapted for miring. 

Tijtlily: that in the schist the vein is fat and ver> much disturbed 
by faults and fc'ds, and finally enters upon an area ui grcund win. h is 
so shattered that all traces of the vein are lost. It ., i)robable that it 
will be recovered here at so'iie deejier point, approach being made from 
the granite 

5/.v////r.- that extrenie caution must be exercised in undertaking 
the opening up ul a vein in shattered ground of this kin Thtories of 
p.ir.illel ore bodies and numerous veins may be rudely dispelled by 
events, and the plan of work must be held continually subject to mod- 
ification. Only the most shadowy estimates can at any time be i.iade 
of ore in sight, and the plan of operation, can only be outlined in a 
vague way. To open up a mine of this description i. ai entirely differ- 
ent proposition to that of opening up a regular ore Lody. It would 
appear, however, that the vein, where it i.s now being worked in th>! 
grnnite, has at last repched a condition of permanency, and it is likely 
that it will retain this character, as further depth is attained. 

I have attempted to outline the doubts and difficulties connected 
with opening up an ore body of this charai ter, This is a class of min- 



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The Canadian Mining Institute. 



ing, however, which opens up attractive possibilities and cannot be 
neglected. This vein yielded in thirty months $350,000 from 11,500 
tons of ore. It is an open question whether the system of limited 
liability company organization is adapted to a mining proposition of this 
kind. For conducting large operations on lines which can be definitely 
and permanently foreseen and laid out, the present system is no doubt 
to be preferred. l!ut I believe that a system of assessable stock would 
be found to be more economical and, speaking generally, more suitable 
for working a property of the kind under discussion. 

The maps above referred to were prepared by Mr. H. W. Mussen, 
superintendent of the mine. 



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